Qián Xuésēn (1911-2009), also known as Tsien Hsue-shen or H.S. Tsien or 钱学森, was a top rocket scientist in the US in the 1940s and then, after the US deported him in 1955, a top rocket scientist in China. He helped to found the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in the US and China’s aerospace industry.
That decision to deport him has affected the balance of power between China and the US ever since.
The Watsonville Riot (1930) was an anti-Filipino riot in Watsonville, California. The violence lasted five days and led to violence in nearby Stockton, Salinas, Gilroy and San Francisco. There were protests in the Philippines. The body of Fermin Tobera, who was killed during the riot, was sent back to the Philippines for his funeral, where he became a martyr. The Philippines was then under US rule.
By 1909 California grew half the fruits and vegetables in the US. With refrigerated railway cars crossing the nation, California growers stood to make a ton of money.
California news editors and politicians, on the other hand, found they could sell newspapers or win votes by fanning the flames of White hatred against Asians, hatred that often turned violent. They were so successful that by1882 Congress had all but shut off immigration from China and, in 1917, from the rest of Asia – with one exception: the Philippines.
The US had taken over the Philippines in the Philippine American War (1899-1902). Congress was too racist to make the Philippines into states or its people into citizens, but Filipinos did become US nationals. While they could not vote or serve on juries, they could live and work anywhere in the US and its territories.
So by the 1920s, Filipinos had become the cheapest farm workers in California. Growers used them as strikebreakers. White people (aka voters) were being thrown out of work. Then in 1929 the stock market crashed in New York and the country sank into the Great Depression.
It gets worse: Most Filipinos in California were young, single men. That put them in direct competition with White men for White women. California had outlawed marriage between Whites and “negros”, “mulattos”, or “Mongolians”, but it was not clear to everyone whether Filipinos counted as “Mongolians”. Some said they were “Malay” instead.
In 1933, California outlawed marriage between Whites and Malays.
Source: Michael Ochs Archives / Getty
Malcolm X remains one of the most important figures of the American Civil Rights Movement, and his transformation into a vocal human rights activist added to his already impressive legacy.
The man later known as el-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz came to relax some of his fiery politics that defined the earlier part of his time in the spotlight, and yet that same passion remained even as he began to embrace a comprehensive approach to racial harmony.
With the current situations across the nation regarding disparity in how police treat people of color and similar injustices, Malcolm X’s words still hold resonance in modern times. From Ferguson to
Baltimore, African-Americans are reminded that incidents in those respective cities are part of a systematic condition that renders Black people targets of various forms of mistreatment.
On what would be his 90th birthday, NewsOne takes a look…
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By Tanya Carbajal
EL PASO — Emilio Solis Pallares,92, sits at his home in Fabens, Texas, listening with surprised amusement to his own voice for the first time 12 years after his story was cataloged along with the tales of hundreds of other bracero farmworkers as part of a national program by the Smithsonian Institution.
Yes, that is me and the story still remains true,” said Solis, who labored in the cotton of fields of Tornillo, Texas, for 15 years in the 1940’s and 1950’s as a member of the federal Bracero program, which recruited 4.6 million Mexican citizens to work in agriculture in the United States.
Solis’ story was just one of more than 900 interviews conducted by the Institute of Oral History at the University of Texas at El Paso. More than 3,000 oral histories of braceros can be listened to online at the Bracero History Archive. Emilio’s oral history can be found here.
Was Cleopatra black? Spike Lee thinks so. Even Shakespeare, no Afrocentrist he, called her “tawny” (yellowish-brown). Hollywood, though, makes her white (pictured).
But what do the facts say?
I am trying to live in two worlds.
I was born in Utah. My white father descended from the Mormon pioneers. His grandparents were polygamists. My full-blood Navajo mother — who was taken from her family at age five to be assimilated into white culture at the Tuba City Boarding School — joined the Mormon church in her 20s.
Mom had the typical boarding school experience. Overwhelming homesickness, having her mouth washed out with soap for accidentally speaking forbidden Navajo, witnessing others endure severe punishment for being incorrigible in some Navajo way and a constant curriculum of You Need to Become White Now. My mom was smart, she learned fast to conform, to survive. She excelled at the school and even skipped grades.
“This short TV documentary is an introduction to the issue of shadeism, the discrimination that exists between the lighter-skinned and darker-skinned members of the same community. This documentary short looks specifically at how it affects young womyn within the African, Caribbean, and South Asian diasporas. Through the eyes and words of 5 young womyn and 1 little girl – all females of colour – the film takes us into the thoughts and experiences of each. Overall, ‘Shadeism’ explores where shadeism comes from, how it directly affects us as womyn of colour, and ultimately, begins to explore how we can move forward through dialogue and discussion.” -unique5589
HT – My American Meltingpot
“The first four waves from England:
- 1629 to 1640: From East Anglia to New England. Heavily Puritan.
- 1640 to 1675: From southern England to what will become the southern US.
- 1675 to 1725: From the North Midlands to Pennsylvania. Heavily Quaker.
- 1717 to 1775: From Northumbria (and Scotland and northern Ireland) to Appalachia.
These four English subcultures spread across North America, wiping out Native Americans. They will mix and create three new subcultures:
- Greater New York, part Dutch, part Jewish.
- The Great Basin, centred on Utah. Heavily Mormon.
- Southern California, part Mexican, part Jewish. Spreads across the south-west.
Nearly all non-English Whites will assimilate into one of these seven Anglo-Protestant subcultures to become “American”, meaning White American.”
A guest post by Jefe:
Segregation academies (1955 – ) were set up by whites after Brown v. Board (1954) to circumvent desegregation. They proliferated in the 1960s-1970s in response to court desegregation orders. By the 1990s, following white flight and residential resegregation, many either shut down or were compelled to admit non-white students. Today, they remain a bastion of the “Black Belt”, particularly the Mississippi delta.
The comments by Trojan Pam are as good as the article.
Trojan Pam’s site digs into the Doctrine of White Supremacy to make sense of all this segregation.
Another thing happening in the world of segregation is that there are bilingual immersion schools and non-bilingual immersion schools. Some children receive the advantage of learning two languages and some do not. Interestingly, it’s the majority White schools that are usually left out of the advantage of bilingual education.