Qián Xuésēn (1911-2009), also known as Tsien Hsue-shen or H.S. Tsien or 钱学森, was a top rocket scientist in the US in the 1940s and then, after the US deported him in 1955, a top rocket scientist in China. He helped to found the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) in the US and China’s aerospace industry.
That decision to deport him has affected the balance of power between China and the US ever since.
In 1980, nearly half of U.S. counties — 1,412 of them — had populations that were almost exclusively (98 percent or more) white. Thirty years later, only 149 counties — fewer than five percent — fit that same description.
Also see: Indian termination policy During 1953–1964, more than 100 tribes were terminated, approximately 1,365,801 acres (5,527 km2) of trust land were removed from protected status, and 13,263 Native Americans lost tribal affiliation. –Effects
From the native standpoint, Northern Cheyenne former U.S. Senator from Colorado Ben Nighthorse Campbell said of assimilation and termination in a speech delivered in Montana:
“ If you can’t change them, absorb them until they simply disappear into the mainstream culture. …In Washington’s infinite wisdom, it was decided that tribes should no longer be tribes, never mind that they had been tribes for thousands of years. ”
—- Ben Nighthorse Campbell, Opening Keynote Address
While both Black and Native studies scholars have rightfully argued that it is important to look at the distinctness of both anti-Blackness and Indigenous genocide, sometimes this focus on the distinctness obscures how, in fact, they are mutually reinforcing. There is much to be said about these interconnections, and this work has been explored by many in this blog series, in the #decolonizesaam Twitter discussion on anti-Blackness, and elsewhere. Here, I want to focus on how anti-Blackness and Indigenous genocide are connected through colonialism, and further expand on how colonialism constructs both the labor of Indigenous and Black peoples, in particular and different ways, in order to secure the settler state. In this article I want to focus on how settler colonialism is enabled through the erasure of colonialism against Black peoples as well as the erasure of Indigenous labor, with a particular emphasis on some of…
This post was written by Chanchala Gunewardena, (Clark University 2011), Summer 2010 intern in WITNESS’ Communications department.
Last Thursday, WITNESS was invited to The Paley Center for Media for a screening of a special segment of NBC’s Dateline, titled America Now: Children of the Harvest. This piece, a follow up to a 1998 Emmy Award winning report on migrant farm workers and their families, attempts to see, what has developed and changed in the lives of a particulargroup of people twelve years on. More specifically however, it is focused on the issue of child labor, as migrant families who work in the agricultural sector tend to be assisted in their work by their whole family, including children under the legal working age (for this specific sector) of twelve.
The country is slowly becoming more like a “rainbow,” according to a new book by Paul Taylor and Pew Research called “The Next America”.
These groups have many people of mixed heritage:
Latino, Black, Asian, Native American, and White
(Hispanic) people are mixed by definition. Hispanic has not been defined as a race, but this seems to be changing. Latin American countries have not had anti-miscegenation laws like the U.S. Most Latinos are part Amerindian mixed with some part(s) Spanish, Portuguese or Black.
people have been mixing with others in the U.S. since anti-miscegenation laws have been abolished, and also before anti-miscegenation laws were in place. After WWII there were more interracial Asian children in the U.S. due to both “war brides”, and a fear that being Asian and looking Asian can lead to discrimination and even internment.
“Native American people is the only race in America that has to prove that they’re Indian.” – Dwanna L. Robertson
White people are often mixed with ‘5 shades of White’, or they are White Latino, or they are ‘One drop’ of color / ‘passing as White’, aka 1/16th or 1/32th of color. White is not counted as White when mixed with people of color, which accounts for the decline in White numbers over time. The other reason the numbers for White drop is because Europeans no longer immigrate to the U.S. at any where near the same rate of other groups. European countries tend to provide good universal health care and tend to have lower gun violence. Police do not routinely carry guns on their person in Britain, Ireland, Iceland, Norway, New Zealand and India. In Norway officers carry arms in their cars but not on their person.
Other people includes Native American (1%) and self identified Mixed people (5%).
Intermarriage among people of different races is increasingly common. In 1980, just 7% of all marriages in the U.S. were between spouses of a different race or ethnicity.In 2010, that share has doubled to 15% of all new marriages in the U.S. Hispanics (26%) and Asians (28%) were most likely to “marry out,” compared with 9% of whites and 17% of blacks. – Pew Research
If two people of mixed heritage marry, does Pew Research count that as marrying out / intermarriage?
There is no Mixed American Life without pluralism. There is no pluralism without (im)migration.
The 1964 Civil Rights act, pushed by the civil rights movement and Dr. Martin Luther King, influenced a change to U.S. immigration policy so that quotas are no longer based on race. This explains why the graph above shows population diversity quickly expand after 1964.
Title II of the 1964 Civil Rights act outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin.
The Nation Origins Formula restricted immigration on the basis of existing proportions of U.S. population, severely restricting immigration of people who were not already represented in the current U.S. ethnic groups of the time.
Current U.S. immigration law favors the highly educated. U.S. immigration laws are now based on class instead of race. A problem with this is that class is often linked with race, and even more so now because U.S. immigration laws favor certain class groups, then those class groups become associated with certain professions, whether it be highly educated doctors and IT workers, or less educated agricultural workers and service industry workers.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was repealed in 1943. Years later, U.S. culture finally considers Chinese food to be American food. You can tell because most every significant city in the U.S. has a Chinese restaurant. Chinese food is so popular with Americans as to now be considered American food, the way that Mexican and Italian food is also American food because you see these restaurants in so many cities.
Amerindians used to make up 100% of the Americas. Native Americans make up only about 2 percent of the U.S. population in 2014 and are projected to make up only 2.4 percent of of total U.S. population in 2060. –census.gov