Arabic

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Arabic (300s- ) is the main language of North Africa, the Middle East and, according to the Prophet Muhammad, of Paradise. It is the language of the Koran. In 1974 it became one of the official languages of the United Nations. It is the largest language in Africa, the fourth largest in the world (after English, Mandarin Chinese and Hindi/Urdu).

English has about 2,000 root words from Arabic, mainly by way of French, Italian, Spanish and Latin. Among them:

1200s: admiral, candy, syrup, sugar, mattress, elixir, scarlet, chess, cotton, lute, saffron1300s: caliph, alchemy, Aldebaran, Algol, zenith, nadir, orange, azure, checkmate, rook (chess), amber, alkali, borax1400s: lemon, spinach, jar (container), carat, crimson1500s: mosque, emir, vizier, sultan, artichoke, apricot, arsenal, magazine, alcohol, algebra, Rigel, Betelgeuse, calibre, caliper, giraffe, assassin, gauze, lacquer, monsoon, sheikh, talc, tariff, Gibraltar1600s: Muslim, minaret, Koran, coffee, alcove, sofa, algorithm, Vega, genie, zero, harem, sherbet, gazelle, guitar, lime (fruit), sequin, Sahara, Abyssinia, madrasah1700s: fake, ghoul, carmine, cheque, tambourine, adobe, Allah1800s: Islam, tangerine, so long, safari, alfalfa, tuna, wadi, burka, hijab1900s: intifada
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